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आधुनिक मराठी कवितेच्या जनकाचा मान निर्विवादपणे केशवसुतांचा. संत-पंत-शाहिरी काव्य ह्या मर्यादेत अडकून पडलेल्या काव्यक्षेत्राला, त्यांच्या ‘जुने जाऊद्या मरणालागुनि’ ह्या भूमिकेचे रणशिंग फुंकणार्या ‘तुतारी’ने खडबडून जागे केले. एकोणिसाव्या शतकाच्या सरत्या काळात इंग्रजी साहित्याशी येऊ लागलेला संपर्क, युरोपातील ‘रोमँटिसिझम’सारख्या नव्या शैलीशी झालेली ओळख आणि तुरळक प्रमाणात का होईना; पण ह्या नवीन बदलांना अनुकूल प्रतिसाद देणारा वाचकवर्ग ह्यासारखे काही घटक बहुतांशी पारलौकिक सृष्टीभवती घुटमळणार्या पारंपरिक कवितेला नवीन वळण देणारे ठरले. गोविंदाग्रजही थोड्याफार फरकाने ह्याच नव्या मनूतले कवी म्हणता येतील.
पुढे रविकिरण मंडळासारखे प्रयोग जरी मराठी कवितेला फारशी निराळी दिशा देऊ शकले नसले तरी ती अधिक लोकप्रिय होण्यात त्यांनी हातभार लावला. त्यानंतरचा एक महत्त्वाचा टप्पा म्हणता येईल, अशी मर्ढेकर – बोरकर – कुसुमाग्रज ही कवींची त्रयी दोन महायुद्धांमधल्या अस्वस्थ काळात उदयाला आली. वयात जेमतेम काही महिन्यांचे अंतर असणार्या ह्या तिघांच्या कवितांची शैली, वर्ण्यविषय आणि दृष्टिकोन जरी निरनिराळे असले तरी त्यांच्या कविता मराठी साहित्याला समृद्ध करून गेल्या, याबद्दल दुमत नसावं.
कवितेच्या आकृतिबंधात वेगवेगळे प्रयोग करून पाहणार्या, विविध विषय समर्थपणे हाताळणार्या ह्या तीन कवींना एखादं सोयीस्कर लेबल चिकटवण्याचा प्रयत्न कधी कधी होतो; तो अर्थातच अन्याय्य आहे. निसर्गकविता आणि रमल प्रेमकाव्य लिहिणार्या बोरकरांना कधी ‘रसलंपट मी तरी मज अवचित गोसावीपण भेटे’चा साक्षात्कार होतो. ‘हा इथला मज पुरे फवारा’ म्हणणार्या मर्ढेकरांना ‘जरा असावी मरणाचीही, अमोघ आणिक दुबळी भीती; जरा आतड्यांमधून यावी, अशाश्वताची कळ ओझरती’ असं वाटून जातं. तर ‘तव आन्तर अग्नी क्षणभर तरी फुलवावा’ ही आकांक्षा मनी बाळगणारी कुसुमाग्रजांची काव्यप्रेरणा ‘किनार्यावर’ सारखी तरल प्रेमकविता लिहून जाते.
एरवी ‘तरीही येतो वास फुलांना’ इतपत आशेची धुगधुगी असणारे मर्ढेकर ‘किती चातक-चोचीने प्यावा वर्षाऋतू तरी’ म्हणत आषाढ-श्रावणाचं प्रसन्न स्वागत करतात; तर ‘मनातले सल रूजून आता, त्याचा झाला मरवा रे’ असं ‘सरीवर सरीं’चं उत्फुल्ल वर्णन करणारे बोरकर कधी त्या कुंद, पावसाळी हवेचा विरागी मूड ‘सुखा नाही चव लव वठलेली आहे, दु:खा नाही भार धार बोथटली आहे’ अशा मोजक्या शब्दांत नेमका रेखाटतात. सभ्य, संयत कुसुमाग्रजांना क्वचित ‘असे मवाली पाहुनि होतो, मीही काही वेळ मवाली; विडी कुणाची बसतो फुंकित, आडोशास पुलाच्या खाली’ असा परकायाप्रवेश करावासा वाटतो.
असं असलं, तरी ह्या तिन्ही कवींची काही व्यवच्छेदक लक्षणं ओळखता येतात. साध्या आगगाडीचंच उदाहरण घ्या. कुसुमाग्रजांच्या कवितेत ती जुलमी, उद्दाम सत्तेचे रूपक म्हणून येते (‘आगगाडी आणि जमीन’). बोरकरांच्या ‘चित्रवीणा’ ह्या कवितेतला निवेदक गाडीत बसून आजूबाजूचा निसर्ग न्याहाळतो, दृश्यं आठवणीत साठवून घेतो. गाडीचं ह्या कवितेतलं प्रयोजन केवळ एक साधन म्हणून (‘घाटामध्ये शिरली गाडी आणि रात्रीचा पडला पडदा, पण चित्रांची विचित्रवीणा अजून करते दिडदा दिडदा’); तर मर्ढेकरांच्या कवितांतून ती शहरातल्या संवेदना बधीर करणार्या गतानुगतिकतेचे प्रतीक म्हणून येते. (‘सकाळीं उठोनि | चहा-कॉफी प्यावी | तशीच गाठावी | वीज-गाडी ||)
एकंदरीतच जर या कालखंडातल्या कवितेचं ढोबळमानाने वर्गीकरण करायचं झालं, तर ते आत्माविष्कार करणारी कविता आणि विश्वाविष्काराचा वेध घेणारी कविता, असं करता येईल. ‘जे पिंडी ते ब्रह्मांडी’ ह्या न्यायाने ही विभागणी काही हवाबंद कप्प्यांसारखी संपूर्ण निराळी किंवा सकृद्दर्शनी वाटते तितकी परस्परविरोधीही नाही. तसं पाहिलं तर, प्रत्येक माणसाचे आयुष्य ही त्याच्यापुरती का होईना – पण छोट्या, छोट्या अनन्यसाधारण घटनांची एक साखळी असते. जितक्या बारकाईने त्या साखळीकडे पहावे, तितक्याच स्पष्टपणे त्यामागचे ‘विश्वाचे आर्त’ एखाद्या प्रतिभावंताला उलगडत जाते. ‘व्हॉट इज मोस्ट पर्सनल, इज मोस्ट युनिव्हर्सल’ असं ह्या प्रक्रियेबद्दल म्हणता येईल. कमीअधिक प्रमाणात, ह्या तिन्ही कविवर्यांच्या लेखनात याचा पडताळा येतो.
कवितेच्या मुख्य प्रवाहाच्या दृष्टीने विचार केला, तर मर्ढेकर हे या तिघांतले सर्वाधिक बंडखोर कवी. महायुद्धाच्या विध्वंसात होरपळलेले जग, औद्योगिक क्रांतीमुळे शहरांकडे झुंडीने आलेल्या लोकांचं बेकलाईटी सहनौटरक्तु जगणं ह्यासारखे विषय; ‘शतशतकांच्या पायलन्सवर टिंबे देऊन बसलेले कावळे’, ‘दिव्यांनी पंक्चरलेली रात्र’ ह्यासारख्या खास महानगरी प्रतिमा आणि आंतरराष्ट्रीय घडामोडींचे संदर्भ त्यांनी मराठी कवितेत आणले. ‘रोमँटिसिझम’च्या प्रभावाखाली असलेल्या तत्कालीन मराठी कवितेला वास्तववादी आणि विज्ञाननिष्ठेचं परिमाण त्यांच्या कवितांमुळे मिळालं.
‘मराठी साहित्याला आजवर इतकी वळणं मिळाली आहेत, की त्याचा मुख्य प्रवाहच हरवून गेला आहे’, असं विनोदाने म्हटलं जातं. बोरकरांची कविता ह्या विधानाला अपवाद ठरते. गोव्याचा समृद्ध निसर्ग; संतवाङ्मयाचा आध्यात्मिक वारसा आणि पोर्तुगीज राजवटीमुळे लॅटिन संस्कृतीचे झालेले संस्कार; गांधीवाद; कोकणीची अंगभूत नादमयता; पंचेद्रियांना सुखावणारे अनुभव घेतानाच आयुष्याला उदात्ततेचाही स्पर्श असावा ही लागलेली ओढ – अशा निरनिराळ्या घटकांचा बोरकरांच्या कवितेवर प्रभाव पडलेला दिसतो. ऐहिकता आणि परमार्थ ह्यात पराकोटीचे द्वैत आहे, अशी समजूत प्रचलित असण्याच्या काळात त्यांची कविता ‘पार्थिव्यातच वास हवा, परि दिव्याचा हव्यास हवा’ असं सांगते. ज्या गोव्याच्या भूमीत चांदणं माहेरा येतं, तिथेच ‘खोल आरक्त घावांत, शुद्ध वेदनांची गाणी’ही ती गुणगुणते. ‘दादाईझम‘शी दूरचं नातं सांगणारी मर्ढेकरांची कविता, महानगरी साचेबद्ध जीवन जर ‘मी एक मुंगी, हा एक मुंगी’ सारख्या ओळींतून प्रकट करत असेल; तर बोरकरांची सौंदर्यलक्ष्यी दृष्टी ‘प्रति एक झाडामाडा त्याची त्याची रुपकळा, प्रति एक पानाफुला त्याचा त्याचा तोंडवळा’ सांगत आपलं लक्ष वेधून घेते.
कुसुमाग्रजांच्या कवितेकडे ह्या दोन्ही काव्यप्रवाहांशी नातं जोडून असणारी आणि तरीही स्वतःची अशी खास वैशिष्ट्यं जपणारी, म्हणून पाहता येईल. मर्ढेकरांच्या कवितेप्रमाणे ती पारंपरिक सौंदर्यवादी कवितेहून पूर्ण निराळा मार्ग निवडत नाही आणि बोरकरांच्या तरल, ‘लिरिकल’ कवितांइतका व्यक्तिगत भावनांचा वेधही घेत नाही. याचा अर्थ त्यांनी प्रेमकविता लिहिल्या नाहीत; किंवा ज्या लिहिल्या त्या कोरडेपणाने लिहिल्या आहेत, असं नाही. पण अशा बहुतांश कवितांवर एक जाणत्या, दूरस्थपणाची छाप आहे. वैयक्तिक भावनांचा म्हणा किंवा संवेदनशील मनाच्या व्यक्तीच्या प्रतिक्रियांचा म्हणा – आपल्या आजूबाजूच्या समाजात किंवा राष्ट्रीय/जागतिक स्तरावर होणार्या घडामोडींशी एक सामाजिक संवाद ते आपल्या कवितेतून साधतात. परिणामी ‘होते म्हणू स्वप्न एक, एक रात्र पाहिलेले; होते म्हणू वेड एक, एक रात्र राहिलेले’ ह्यासारख्या ओळी मग निव्वळ कवीच्या राहत नाहीत. शिवाय ह्यामागे चतुर कारागिरी किंवा अभिनिवेशी भूमिका नाही. आपल्या प्रकृतिधर्माप्रमाणे निवडलेला मार्ग संयत ठामपणे चोखाळत रहावा, तशी तिची वाटचाल आहे.
कुसुमाग्रजांच्या चतुरस्र साहित्यिक कारकीर्दीत, वाचकांच्या दृष्टीने सर्वाधिक महत्त्व ‘विशाखा’ला असण्यामागचे हे एक कारण असू शकेल. १९४२ सारख्या अस्वस्थ वर्षात प्रसिद्ध झालेला हा कवितासंग्रह. ‘चले जाव’चे आंदोलन, क्रांतिकारकांचे बलिदान, दुसर्या महायुद्धाचा उडालेला भडका, स्वातंत्र्याची चाहूल लागलेली असली तरीही समाजात असलेली विषमता इ. अनेक गोष्टींचे पडसाद त्यात उमटले आहेत. पण त्याचबरोबर निसर्गकविता आणि प्रेमकविताही आहेत. ‘कोलंबसाचे गर्वगीत’मधला दुर्दम्य आशावाद आणि ‘मातीची दर्पोक्ती’ व ‘पाचोळा’मधली चक्रनेमिक्रमेणची अटळ जाणीव; सैगलच्या सुरांना मानवता जागवण्यासाठी घातलेली साद आणि ‘पृथ्वीच्या प्रेमगीता’तली तेजाची उत्कट ओढ; केशवसुतांच्या प्रतिमांना मानवंदना द्यावी तशा आलेल्या ‘हा काठोकाठ कटाह भरा!’ आणि ‘काळोखावर तेजाची लेणी खोदीत बसलेला देवदूत’ ह्या ओळी; अहि-नकुलातले नाट्य आणि ‘गोदाकाठचा संधिकाल’मधली चित्रदर्शी शैली; ‘क्रांतीचा जयजयकार’मधली चेतना आणि ‘लिलाव’ कवितेतली विखारी हतबलता; प्रतापराव गुजरांच्या आवेशी पण आत्मघातकी हल्ल्याचे रचलेले स्तोत्र आणि बाजीप्रभूंसारख्या लढवय्याच्या मनातही अखेरच्या क्षणी ‘सरणार कधी रण’ हा डोकावून गेलेला प्रश्न — वरवर व्याघाती, परस्परविरोधी वाटतील अशा विषयांवरच्या कविता आपल्या समर्थ शब्दकळेने आणि समर्पक प्रतिमांनी वाचकांसमोर मांडणारे फार कमी कवितासंग्रह असावेत. अलेक्झांडर पोपचे शब्द उसने घेऊन सांगायचं झालं तर ‘What oft was thought, but ne’er so well express’d’ हा निकष जर कवितांना लावायचा झाला; तर त्यात ‘विशाखा’चे स्थान फार वरचे असेल.
By Kulkarni, A.R.
About the Author
Professor Ananta Ramchandra Kulkarni was born in the village of Belgaum district. He was born to Deshastha Rgvedi Brahman family. His father was non-matriculate but his mother’s family had a long tradition of education. He attended the Municipal High School at Nipani, matriculating at Bombay University in 1942, the entering Rajaram College at Kolhapur. His education was interrupted by the Quit India Movement but he continued and earned B.A degree from Rajaram. History was never a major subject of Kulkarni but finding no vacancy in Economics for lecturer ship at Rani Parvati Devi College in Belgaum he took post in history. He was fortunate enough to get qualifying marks for lecturer ship. Soon he began to work hard and for three years he worked then he got temporary appointment at the American Marathi Mission’s College in Ahmednagar. He presented his first paper to the Indian History Congress in 1960 and began publishing pieces in Marathi for use of college students.
His work on the social and economic life of the Shivaji period in Maharashtra marked a major new historigraphical intitiative. Later Kulkarni applied for a new post in a new department of History at the University of Poona and was appointed in 1969 where he served until retirement in 1985.
Kulkarni passed away in Pune on May 24, 2009 due to throat cancer. His life is significant from the point of view of academic life. He was commited to research in original documents and offered disinterested interpretations to past. Besides he remained a valued friend and advisor.
Professor Kulkarni was active in his academic life for over fifty years. This brought him into contact with many leading intellectuals of Maharashtra. Kulkarni was a warm welcoming figure to visiting scholars both Indian and foreign. He assisted researchers in access to resources and institutions and was a major supporter of a series of conferences in Canada, the United States, France, Germany, Russia and India on Maharashtra studies.
About the book
The book titled “The Maratha” is authored by A.R.Kulkarni, who is a well known historian known for his contribution in the study of Maratha history. Besides, he is the Author of three more books dealing with the Maratha and Maratha Country. The Author has done a great job in this field of study and his scholarly work is evident in the present book. The work indeed looks small does its job preety well. Author makes it clear that the book is the outcome of the request made to the Author by those Indian and Foreign scholars not necessarily belong to the discipline of history. It is an authentic and brief history of Marathas. We find that it doesn’t only deal with the political history but also, social, economic and cultural aspects of the Marathas period of Indian History. The book is brought out by diamond a publication finds a simple without fanciful cover. It looks neat and clean and also very light which makes it portable easy to handle. As far as the language inside the book we find a neat presentation of the topics with sub-topics and subhealings. The language used in the book is very simple, easy to grasp. Indeed the book is aimed at serving those who are interested in trying to know who were the Marathas and their significance in shaping the history of India prior to the establishment of British Raj in India. It is a value for money to buy the book, if we just ignore some spelling errors in it. Since it is a brief history of Maratha and Maratha Country the book does a fair job in putting forth more than enough.
The Marathas book written by A.R.Kulkarni describes the role played by the Marathas in the Indian History of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. The author in his various chapters explains a lot of aspects about the Maratha state. The topographical feature of land that play a very important role in moulding the character and shaping the history of ghat mathas as well as the maval region around it has played important role in the medieval history of India. It also gives information attributed by foreign historians. Shivaji and his various episodes in life gives a better knowledge. The Afzal Khan episode is siginificant in Maratha history in many aspects.
In provincial administration there were three divisions:-
• Northern division
• Middle division
• Southern division
According to author Shivaji assumed crown and the tittle Chhatrpati in 1674 and he formed central administration and brought under various officers.
• The Mhukhya Pradhan (Peshwa) or prime minister
• Amatya (majumdar) or revenue minister
• The Sachiv (in charge of royal correspondence)
• The Mantri (waqnis) record keeper
• The Senapati (sar-i-nanbat) commander in chief
• The Sumanta (dabir) foreign minister
• The Nyayadhisha or chief justice
• The Pnadit or religious head
The author says that Maratha state in general reflect economic aspect. According to author Shivaji adopted a liberal and generous religious policy towards all and he respected both Hindu as well as Muslim religion.
According to author the debacle of Marathas on the battle field of the Panipat came as a shock to Nanasaheb, this period witness the rise of Maratha power to its zenith sa well as the begning of its fall. He was mainly responsible for the Maratha expansion in the north as well as south. A.R.Kulkerni mentions battle fought by Madhavrao. First battle was fought between Madhavrao and Nizam, the second battle was fought between Madhavrao and Hyder Ali. The battle was fought for subjugation of Karnataka.
There are many causes as why did the Marathe Empire collapse:-
• Mismanagement of Maratha state
• No unity among the Marathas
• Kingdoms fought among themselves
• Internal jealousy
• Absence of unity among Maratha Sardar
• The Maratha defeat in third battle on Pnipat
• Organization of Maratha armies
• There was economic prosperity in spite territorial expansion
• There was no change in Maratha administrative structure
After having been read, we find the book is well written with good amount of facts, information along with the brief attitude towards the write up. Author proves his point which he mentions in the preface about aiming the book at common people and those who may not belong to the history discipline.
The author though uses a simple language; its reading at times becomes formal and boring with the absence of pictures that describes the events. But we find the understanding becomes easier with the annexure, charts and maps presented as they do play an important role in making the reading complete.
As a whole the book is good and can be advisable to those who have no or little knowledge about the Marathas as a whole and easy to buy. The price of the book i.e.Rs-225 looks economical and cheap enough. It is affordable, simple, easy to handle and value for money.
G.V.M’s Dr.Dada Vaidya College of Education Library held Science books exhibition on 14th March, 2016. All the science students could browse through the books and select books for their reference as well as reading.
Science faculties also visited the exhibition and were happy to see the exhibited books and students enthusiasm in books.
Some of the pictures on display of the exhibition held
SOCIAL LIFE OF ANIMALS
By SUKANYA DATTA
Sociability in animals tends to be overshadowed by that of the humans however when we look curiosity it reveals the richness of social traits inherent in animals society. In this book the author has revealed the fascinating world of animals unlike the humans race, animals come in myriads of shapes, colours and shows as astounding range of behaviours. They don’t speak like humans but they can communicate among themselves quite effectively using chemicals, gestures ,postures ,and different kinds of vocalisation. This book brings out entirely unknown facets of animals life that reveal even human behaviour. Even the extreme limits to which some species go to defend their territory,woo their mates and protect their offspring’s some of their actions are truly amazing most animals are more civilised than humans .In this book the author has given many examples which revels the richness of social traits inherent in animals during nurturing young ones ,making friends ,celebrating kinship recognising a boss mourning a loss wooing a mate or cheating a on a rival.
Author describes how man is not the only social animal but it is the last member to have joined the club- social she also describes how the seeds of social behaviour is manifested in varying degrees in different species from most lowly to most highly evolved .Parental care consideration shown to the members of the same species obedience to rules ,specialise behaviour towards potential mates aggression towards foes and grief at the death of members of the species –would qualify for social behaviour.
In this chapter the author has given a beautiful example of moose a social baby is thought the art of being unsocial by its parents as it is solitary for a part of the year and gregarious for the rest of the year as there is significant changes in mental state as it flips from one mode to another also this behaviour is seen in smaller animals and example given was EURASIN ROBIN usually leads a solitary life and attacks other members of the species but during winter all is forgiven as huge flocks congregates for migration to better climate all these are social rules that must be adhered to and honoured whenever two species meet the initial conflict give rise to an arrangement that both parties honour.
Being social means interacting with members of other species for food or protection or for transportation is also known as symbiosis. And the author gives different examples as how social behaviour is seen even in deep under the sea. I liked the examples given by author of symbiotic relationship of marine iguana and red crab,when iguana basks in the sun the red crab fearlessly walk over them scrutinises stops and pulls the patches of dead skin on the iguana ,as the reptile enjoys attention and crab gets fresh meal.
Also symbiotic relationship seen in invertebrates i.e. relations of goby and shrimps . the shrimps dig tiny burrows and the goby takes up residence in such hole the two dissimilar friends remain close to one another with antennae of shrimps always touching the goby because goby has excellent eyesight and can spot danger from far and shrimps dines majestically on the remannates of goby’s dinner.
Also another examples of how two unlikely species of vertebrates and lowly invertebrates become acquainted by the observation from marine aqua culturalist when giant anemone and a clown fish were first placed in aquarium, fish swims fearlessly towards, circles anemone it touches tentacles where’s the nematocysts does not stings the clown fish it swims closer and closer finally swims deep into the anemone but when a clone fish living with one anemone is removed and placed with another anemone it is stung and killed .whereas the clown fish may raise the family among the tentacles with the father guarding till the offspring finds anemone of their own.
The author also gave the studies done by William Beebe an American zoologist who observed curious cleaning behaviour of barber fish in water near HAITI and i was surprised that ( a film showing the cleaning services of these fishes was shown to international audience) fish was anthias sacer – manicure fish. It is brightly colored using tweezers like teeth they probe their client bodies and remove parasites and fungi they clean wounds by nibbling away the dead flesh surrounding it the fish that requires the service of the barber fish swims over to the other side, the fish raises its gills cover on other side most customers queue up for their turn to be groomed but very big fish such as shark. Also the studies of mancieta wurth studied cleaner fish in the Ras Mohammad national park they found that cleaner fish stroke their clients fins to cement relationship if they accidentally bitten too vigorously in the course of their duties they pet their clients even more. The author throws a light on how the scientists were curious to know all the aspects of these behaviour .so in the aquarium fish was artificially deprived of its cleaner .soon the inhabitant were attacked by parasites then the cleaner fish was introduced and it immediately set about cleaning its patients.
Author also gives examples of one sided relationship where one does not gain or loose anything example imperial shrimps often hitch rides on large sea cucumber which they use as a free ferry to rich feeding areas. Once reach they hop off the sea cucumber and when through with feasting simply catch another sea cucumber to ride back. Species come together unlikely alliance for more efficient predators detection . In forests of the kanga tiger reserve in Madhya Pradesh langurs and chital have an unspoken understanding .two have different detection faculties and together form a more efficient detection system. Langurs: as their vantage point is high up in trees and with keen sight detect predators from distance able to feed and maintain vigilance simultaneously. whereas the chital have excellent sense of smell but they need to lower their heads to feed and their vision is restricted while feeding langurs sound the first warning and chital’s responds to it ,also benefits from the wasteful feeding habits of the langurs as they drop lot of mature leaves and fruits they feed on. Most interesting association between tockus horn bill and helogate dwarf mongoose in Kenya goes out to forage together the horn bill delays their own foraging until the mongoose arrives.
The ani which is cousin of cuckoo keeps lookout for the fierce army ants as processions of ants progresses insects and other animals flee before it.ani’s wonderful meal but never attack ant. Many around 200 species of ant birds in America follow voracious ants. The ants birds feed on insects and other creatures that flee on army ants.
LIVING IN HARMONY
In this chapter author tells how the animals live in harmony and what different strategies species have evolved to achieve this from tiny insects ,birds and re[tiles to the most elusive mammals and fish residing in terrain, ranging from water less desert to tropical rain-forests and oceans.If an animal chooses to be solitary ,it would still need to pair up mainly to reproduce for that brief span of time it would have to abide the rules of its species ;behave socially.
The most beautiful example which described the living in harmony for fish shoaling fish live in schools each fish is spaced evenly with room to swim schools are two types first the fish lie with their head level and second the head of the fish lies near the middle of neighbors body. In social species rituals are needed to promote harmony between individuals for examples bird avadavat often sit close to each other but also push or lean against neighbours and sometimes the pressure is so much that the outermost bird uses its wings as a prop to prevent itself from falling off known as clumping. Author gave the examples of how egrets use orchestrated strategy to catch more food and also ceremonial assemblies where crow is famous and it is known as rook parliament. Also seen in birds most birds fly in V formation taking turns to fly in the lead position by this they not only confuse their predators but also save energy. Birds also spend much time in simply cleaning of feathers confirming its social function of ensuring group harmony. Harmony in baboon- troop members gather in small groups and groom each others fur it is not only about cleaning the fur and skin it reinforces social relationship keeps interpersonal interaction on an even be forgiven and forget gesture.
HOW DO THEY COMMUNICATE?
They don’t speak like humans , but they can communicate among themselves quite effectively using different methods the author has given astonishing examples but i liked few among them for e.g Male humpback whales sing song every year and they have a haunting new song each year and this songs are the longest and most complex of any song in the animal kingdom whales create themes and repeat the same song for hours all males humpbacks in the same region sing the same song. They produce high frequency and low frequency song. Also Under water communication using sound has been documented in dolphin too ,after world war II, dolphin were kept in captivity and discovered that dolphin had a large vocabulary of sound and tried to locate each other by echo-locating clicks.
SPACE OF ONES OWN.
The concept of territory of important aspects of animal behaviour and the cornerstone of its social life within a given area there is a boss usually dominates male. Scientists have observed cormorants more closely they sit a little away from their neighbours when a new arrival landed it extended its wings and the neighbours shifted a little to accommodates thus there was one wing span space between the neighbours this ensures a individual territory. How humans put name plate on the front door name plate of animals could be a song. Usually male bird arrives first in spring and sings enthusiasm and with great throat power singing male is considered to be up for grab and quickly colonized song is very important role in courtship and nesting as well
Another extreme common means of demarcating territory is by means of chemical signals in certain species adult colorization proclaims that the individual is ready to stake its claims to territory example yellow faced angle fish the very young fish have blue and white stripes on black background this colorization and patter characteristics the young ones of the species with no aspiration to hold a territory adults recognizes the fact that it is no threat to them they allow it to pass in and out of their territory it did turned juveniles black background lightens and the scales acquires a distinct yellow and green lines. the stripes disappears and speckles takes their place individual loses its immature statues and immunity from attacks it begins to look for its own territory. knowing one’s territorial limits and respecting it is inherent in ones nature.
A HOME AND A MATE
Once a territory is establishes the need to attract a male become strong animals too adventure with gaudy colours, sex pheromones, reluature displayed and willingness to fight are some ways to attracting male and animals society some birds particularly these inhabiting dense forest habitats maintain pair bonds by singing together they divide the song and sing in bits in turns yet in synchronised that singing that even humans are fooled into thinking that only one bird is singing.
Common example is baya weaverbirds where for the first season all that males get demonstration of how a nest should be built .female actually rip up the places where they judge that the weaving is not adequately in brief almost all the behaviour traits that a human male in search of a wife exhibits are mirrored in the animal kingdom. Just as a human suitor takes special care to impress his future wife, the animal suitor too seeks to woo his mate-male penguins for example have a two-in –one dance that attracts the female yet intimidates the males. During this display the male point his bill to the sky waves his flippers to and fro and utters a low braying call. males in search of mates search stretch out their neck ruff out the feather and move their bills up and down when the female come calling after walking out with many females a male finally chooses one there is a special display to announces that a male has been chosen once the snow melts the male collects pebbles which he deposits one at a time at his mates feet she uses them to built up a ring around her but each time she does that she takes a pebble from her paramours nest to add to her own pebbles are precious resources which help to keep her eggs above the melting ice and slush. Female promiscuity may be explained in turn of payment received as pebble which in turn, increase the chances of survival of her chicks ones pair are formed it is amazing to see that each penguins his choose a site equidistant from neighbours .
Some birds bower birds makes an elaborates bowers into which he hope to entice his future mate which he decorates it artistically using colours pebbles fresh flowers even colourful plastics object
Example female birds that forces the males into such partnership the males performance has to be excellent for her to give him the nod. Successful alpha male bird win at least 50 to 60 females every year the beta birds is only biding its time it can reach alpha status once its partnership .such cooperation between unrelated males is probably unique in the animal kingdom.
STRATIFICATION OF SOCIETY
Like humans even in animals work is divided among them and how each worker carry out their own tasks efficiently. the author gave in detail how the work is distributed in ants bees wasps etc. they comprises of workers basic lifestyle of ants bees wasps and termites are shown the colony members are closely related and female queen lays eggs each individual has the designated work area and does not trendless into another workspace most of them remain workers till they die . the reproductive males and sterile females act as nursed to the new born makeup.
ALL FOR NEXT GENERATION
The animal world shows cases some of the most outstanding examples of parental care. for examples the ferocious-looking crocodile not only guides her young ones to water soon after hatching. But also carries them tenderly between her fearsome jaws. The male emperor penguin incubates the eggs and protects the chicks from the frigid arctic winter by standing over them for as long as four months without eating .during this period it may lose up to half its body weight the female hornbill locks herself in within her tree-hole nest till the eggs hatch and the chicks are able to fly only to protect the chicks from predators the care for baby elephants that members of a herd show is legendary.
MULTI USE AGE OF THIS BOOK
This book can be used to teach different science based vocabulary by English teacher also.
Good values of the social behaviour of the animal can be taught in the class during value education..
I would recommend this book as there are lots of things to be learned from social behaviour of the animal and good values should be incorporated in our daily life
Although we humans call our self as social and rational animal there is still a lot to be learned from this non speaking silent creations of god. An animal lover will love this book but I m sure after reading this book even a non lover will also fall in love therefore I recommend this book for everyone.
GVM’s Dr.Dada Vaidya College of Education Library held book exhibition for History subject on 11th February 2016.
All the students and teaching faculties visited the exhibition and enjoyed the books.
Some of The Photo Glimpses are As Follows